**What is Ratio Analysis Financial Statement Analysis**

Analysing financial statements through ratio analysis is like decoding a company’s financial health.

Financial statement analysis through ratio analysis is a powerful tool used by investors, creditors, and management to assess a company’s financial performance and make informed decisions.

Ratios provide quantitative insights into various aspects of a company’s operations, financial structure, and profitability.

The key categories of ratios, their formulas, and provide live examples to illustrate their significance.

**1. Liquidity Ratios:**

Liquidity ratios measure a company’s ability to meet its short-term obligations with its short-term assets. They reflect the company’s ability to manage its cash flow effectively.

**a. Current Ratio:**

The current ratio compares a company’s current assets to its current liabilities.

** Current Ratio=Current Assets/Current Liabilities**

**Example:** Company XYZ has 500,000 in current assets and 250,000 in current liabilities.

Current Ratio=500,000**/**250,000=2

A current ratio of 2 indicates that for every rupees of current liabilities, the company has 2 in current assets, indicating a strong liquidity position.

**b. Quick Ratio (Acid-Test Ratio):**

The quick ratio provides a more stringent measure of liquidity by excluding inventory from current assets.

**Quick Ratio** = Current Assets**−**Inventory**/**Current Liabilities

**2. Profitability Ratios:**

Profitability ratios assess a company’s ability to generate profits relative to its revenue, assets, and equity. They measure the efficiency of operations and the overall profitability of the business.

**a. Gross Profit Margin:**

The gross profit margin measures the percentage of revenue that exceeds the cost of goods sold.

** Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit/Revenue×100**

**Example:** Company ABC has a gross profit of 200,000 and revenue of 500,000.

** Gross Profit Margin= 200,000 / 500,000×100 = 40%**

A gross profit margin of 40% indicates that for every rupees of revenue, the company retains 0.40 as gross profit.

**b. Return on Assets (ROA):**

ROA measures the efficiency of a company in utilizing its assets to generate profit.

**ROA=Net Income ×100 / Total Assets**

**3. Solvency Ratios:**

Solvency ratios focus on a company’s long-term financial stability and its ability to meet its long-term obligations. They assess the company’s leverage and financial risk.

**a. Debt-to-Equity Ratio:**

The debt-to-equity ratio compares a company’s total debt to its total equity.

**Debt-to-Equity Ratio = Total Debt/Total Equity**

**Example:** Company ABC has total debt of 1,00,000 and total equity of 2,00,000.

**Debt-to-Equity Ratio=1,00,000/2,00,000 = 0.5**

A debt-to-equity ratio of 0.5 indicates that for every rupees of equity, the company has 0.50 in debt, suggesting a moderate level of leverage.

**Importance of Ratio Analysis:**

Ratio analysis provides valuable insights into a company’s financial health and performance. It helps stakeholders:

- Assess the company’s liquidity position and ability to meet short-term obligations.
- Evaluate the company’s profitability and efficiency in generating profits.
- Understand the company’s long-term financial stability and leverage.

**Limitations of Ratio Analysis:**

While ratio analysis is a valuable tool, it has certain limitations:

- Ratios are based on historical financial data and may not reflect future performance.
- Different industries have different operating norms, making it challenging to compare ratios across industries.
- Ratios provide a quantitative assessment but may not capture qualitative factors that influence a company’s performance.

**Conclusion :- **

Ratio analysis is a critical component of financial statement analysis, providing stakeholders with valuable insights into a company’s financial performance and health.

By analysing liquidity, profitability, and solvency ratios, stakeholders can make informed decisions regarding investment, lending, and management strategies.

However, it’s essential to interpret ratios in conjunction with other financial information and qualitative factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of a company’s financial position.

By examining trends over time and comparing ratios with industry peers, stakeholders can gain deeper insights into a company’s financial performance and make good decisions for upcoming business.