Information and Communication Technologies UGCNET 1

Information and Communication Technologies 

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) :- Information and communication technologies (ICTs) which includes all applications and services that allow users to access, retrieve, store, transmit, the information in a digital form.

For Example, internet, phones, computers, software, video conferencing, social networking, and other, the importance of ICT initiatives in the agricultural and related industries to reducing the technological gap and  an effective tool for global economic and social growth.

Benefits of Information and communication technologies

Commodity and stock market price information and analysis,

Meteorological data collection,

Advisory services to farmers for agricultural extension,

Early warning systems for disaster prevention and control,

Financial services,

Traceability of agricultural products,

Agricultural statistical data gathering.

not only in education, its helps in agriculture, film industry, news and lifestyle also.

General abbreviations:- Information and communication technologies.

BIOS – The computer’s basic input and output system , A chip linked to the motherboard contains the instructions.

PC – Personal Computer

BYTE – Byte is known as the Storage of data

CPU – Central Processing Unit of the Computer

OS – Operating System of the Computer

PDF – Portable Document Format

RAM – Random Access Memory

ROM – Read Only Memory

AGP – Accelerated Graphic Port

EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

HDD – Hard Disk Drive

WWW – World Wide Web

PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect

UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer

GUI – Graphic User Interface

USB – Universal Serial Board

VGA – Visual Graphic Adaptor

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

WAN – Wide Area Network

EBCDIC – Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

LAN – Local Area Network

ALU – Arithmetic and Logical Unit

DVD – Digital Versatile Disc

CD – Compact Disk

VDU – Visual Display Unit

PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory

URL – Universal Resource Locator

SIM – Subscriber Identification Module

MHZ – Megahertz

GHZ – Gigahertz

ISP – Internet Service Provider

DBMS – Database Management System

SQL – Structured Query Language

PAN – Personal Area Network

IC – Integrated Circuit

PDT – Parallel Data Transmission

PDA – Personal Digital Assistant

USSD – Unstructured Supplementary Service Data

COBOL – Common Basic Oriented Language

CSS – Cascading Style Sheet

XML – Extensible Markup Language

VPN – Virtual Private Network

SEO – Search Engine Optimization

SEM – Search Engine Marketing

IP – Internet Protocol

PAN – Permanent Account Number

SIM – Subscriber Identity Module

ATM – Automated Teller Machine

IFSC – Indian Financial System Code

FSSAI – Food Safety & Standards Authority of India

Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity

HDMI – High-Definition Multimedia Interface

HTML – Hypertext Markup Language

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HTTPS – Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

VIRUS – Vital Information Resources Under Siege

IMEI – International Mobile Equipment Identity

ESN – Electronic Serial Number

UPS – Uninterruptible Power Supply

HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface

VPN – Virtual Private Network

APN – Access Point Name

LED – Light Emitting Diode

VGA – Video Graphics Array

USB – Universal Serial Bus

WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network

PPI – Pixels Per Inch

LCD – Liquid Crystal Display

SLCD – Super Liquid Crystal Display

SNS – Social Network Service

GPS – Global Positioning System

APK – Authenticated Public Key

DNS: Domain Name System

2FA – Two Factor Authentication

3G – Third Generation

4G – Fourth Generation

5G – Fifth Generation

AI – Artificial Intelligence

ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit

API – Application Programming Interface

APN – Access Point Name

B2B – Business-to-Business

B2C – Business-to-Consumer

C2C – Customer to Customer

BCC – Blind Carbon Copy

CC – Carbon Copy

CBT – Computer-Based Training

CSS – Cascading Style Sheets

CSV – Comma-Separated Values

CTR – Click-Through Rate

DC – Direct Current

DOS – Disk Operating System

DPI – Dots Per Inch

ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning

FDD – Floppy Disk Drive

FTP – File Transfer Protocol

GB – Gigabyte

GIF – Graphics Interchange Format

GPS – Global Positioning System

GUI – Graphical User Interface

IoT – Internet of Things

ISO – International Organization for Standardization

LIFO – Last In, First Out

FIFO – First-In, First-Out

Mbps – Megabits per second

PPC – Pay-per-click

QA – Quality Assurance

ROI – Return on Investment

RTF – Rich Text Format

SaaS – Software as a Service

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SQL – Structured Query Language

SSL – Secure Sockets Layer

UI – User Interface

UX – User Experience

VR – Virtual Reality

XSL – Extensible Stylesheet Language

The following are the most commonly used file size options:

Byte (B): The smallest unit of file size, equivalent to 8 bits.

Kilobyte (KB): 1 KB is equivalent to 1024 bytes.

Megabyte (MB): 1 MB is equivalent to 1024.

Gigabyte (GB): 1 GB is equivalent to 1024 MB.

Terabyte (TB): 1 TB is equivalent to 1024 GB.

Petabyte (PB): 1 PB is equivalent to 1024 TB.

Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing :-

Internet :-

The Internet is a system of connected, accessible to everyone computer networks that transmit data globally. It is a “network of networks” made up of millions of smaller domestic, academic, commercial, and governmental networks that collectively transmit different types of data and services like email, online chat, file transfer, and interconnected Web pages and other documents.

Features :-


web-based audio- and video calling

Data transmission/file sharing

Instant messaging

Social networking

Online shopping

Banking services.

Web Page :- A web page is a piece of content on the internet ,that is made up of an HTML/PHP / file as well as any programming or graphics-related files.

Web Sites :- Place are used on the Web to display information. Web site provide some information about the page.

gov (government)

edu (educational institution) and

com (commercial) Network and organization are both.

Search Engines :- A search engine is a tool where a user often uses to access information from the Internet. Nowadays, a wide variety of search engines with unique features are accessible online.

Archie :- Archie a search tool for FTP files, is regarded as the first search engine created.

Veronica :- Veronica is regarded as being the first text-based search engine.

Google :- Google is the most widely used and well-known search engine. Bing, and Yahoo are some of the other well-known search engines.

Intranet :- An intranet is a private and secure business network that uses Internet Protocol (IP) to share data or application resources. The internet is a public network, in contrast to an intranet.
Benefits of Intranet :- finding and seeing information more quickly.

E-mail :- electronic mail , is an electronic message that can include text, files, photos, or other attachments that is transmitted via a network to a particular individual or collection of persons.

These are the elements of an electronic mail:

From : – The email address of sender.

To : – The email address of recipient(s).

Subject :- Reason for message.

Attachment :- contain the files that you want to send.

E-mail Address :- Address consist two parts : 1. user part 2. Domain part

for ex :- userpart@domainpart (

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