Environmental Issues Important For UGC NET Paper 1

Environmental Issues Important For UGC NET Paper 1

Environmental Issues

Environmental Issues we will discuss below like Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste etc.


Climate Change and its Socio-Economic and Political Dimensions. and Impacts of pollutants on human health.

Air pollution :- Air pollution is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere that are harmful to both individual humans and the earth as a whole.

sources of Air pollution :

Automobiles Industry

Electrical Power Plants

Industrial factory

AIR POLLUTANTS :- Carbon Monoxide (CO)

SOURCES :- Fuel combustion from engines and vehicles

IMPACT :- Reduces the amount of oxygen, aggravates heart disease, chest pain


SOURCES :- Metal refineries and other metal industries, waste incinerators

IMPACT :- Damages the nervous system, Results in IQ loss, Effects related to Anemia.

AIR POLLUTANTS :- Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

SOURCES :- Fuel combustion and wood burning

IMPACT :- Lung diseases leading to respiratory symptoms increases susceptibility to respiratory infection

AIR POLLUTANTS :- Particulate Matter (PM)

SOURCES :- Chemical reactions, fuel combustion, industrial processes, farming and during road constructions.

IMPACT :- Lung or heart diseases, respiratory problems and sometimes premature deaths.

AIR POLLUTANTS :- Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

SOURCES :- Fuel combustion

IMPACT :- Asthma and makes breathing difficult

Water pollution :– Water pollution is the unresolved continuous poisoning of water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater by human activities.


Industrial pollutants : Boron, Arsenic, Zinc, Lead, and Mercury.

Agricultural pollutants : weeds, insecticides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers.

Urban pollutants : Sulphate, chlorine, sodium, calcium, phosphates, and magnesium ions

Physical pollutants : Oil, grease, and volcanic dust are examples of physical contaminants.

Effects of Water Pollution

Death of water animals.

Irrigation by polluted water affects plants.

Diseases – cholera, jaundice, diarrheas’ typhoid and hepatitis.

Soil pollution:- The decline of the capacity of land fertility as either an indirect or direct outcome of human activity is referred to as “soil pollution.”

The capacity of a soil to help plant in growth by supplying essential nutrients to plants. The micronutrients phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen, as well as the mineral magnesium, are found inside plants.


1 Agricultural sources:- These include agricultural waste, animal dung, farm trash, and herbicide, fertilizer, and insecticide wastes.

2 Ashes:- Anything that remains after burning solid fuels is referred to as ashes. There are two different kinds of ashes: bottom ash, which is made up of burnt glass and metal waste and cannot decompose, and top ash. Fly ash is the second kind of ash. It is the ash that incinerator chimney filters are designed to catch.

3 industry sources:- These include paints, chemicals, metals like aluminum, metals, and polymers.

4 Sewage treatment includes collected solids and biomass waste.

5 Garbage:- Municipal or household waste, including glass, metal.

6 Deforestation:- Land degradation, desertification, and soil erosion are all effects of deforestation.

7 Chemical and nuclear plants:- chemical waste receive from the chemical industry.


It may cause liver, skin, heart, cancers and neurological damage.

Noise pollution:- Noise pollution refers to any undesired or irritating sound that causes ear discomfort.


1 Household sources:- Devices such as TVs, loudspeakers, food mixers, dryers, vacuum cleaners, coolers for washing machines, and AC.

2 industrial activity:- Construction sites, manufacturing facilities, and printing presses.

3 Transportation:- includes trains, cars on the road, and planes flying above residential areas.


Noise pollution may cause hearing loss, sleep disruption, stress-related illnesses.

Climate Change and its Socio-Economic and Political Dimensions.

climate change:- A significant change in the world’s the environment, winds, levels of seawater is called climate change.


Greenhouse Effect: The increase in temperature that takes place as a result of the atmosphere absorbing heat that emitted from Earth into space is known as the greenhouse effect.

Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect are chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, Carbon Dioxide (CO2),Water Vapor (H20), Methane (CH4),and Nitrous Oxide (NO2).

Industrial activities: these activities have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.


The temperature will keep rising.

Changes to the patterns of rainfall.

Floods and temperatures will increase as a result of climate change.

It’s possible that the Arctic Ocean won’t have any ice.

By coming days, the sea level will rise by 1 to 2 feet.

Impacts of pollutants on human health.

The chemicals, particles, and molecules that contribute to smog are known as pollutants, daily life can be injured by absorption to these chemicals, and their effects on people and plants are widely documented.

There are several ways that pollutants can enter the environment, both naturally and human activity. Numerous pollutants are released into the environment in a variety of methods, that unique consequences on human health. They are also present in a variety of concentrations.

Different types of pollutants include:

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Sulfur oxides (SOx)

Mercury (Hg)

1 Nitrogen oxides’ effects on the environment and human health :-

nitrogen dioxide can harm the human respiratory system and make less immune to becoming significantly impacted by respiratory infections and asthma.

It may also have an impact on the senses by reducing an individual’s ability to detect smells.

High quantities of nitrogen dioxide are also bad for plant because they hurt the leaves, reduce growth, or reduce the yield of crops.

2 Effects of Sulphur dioxide on the environment :-

Major element of Acid rain’s is sulfuric acid, which is created when Sulphur dioxide reacts with water, air, and other gases. Acid rain may cause deforestation, and acidify rivers to the harm of fish and other aquatic creatures.

Sulphur dioxide may irritation the eyes and has an impact on the way the body breathes, specifically the function of the lungs.

It contributes to illnesses like asthma and increases coughing.

3 Mercury effects on the environment and human health :-

Contact with mercury can have a number of medical effects, including skin, eyes, and digestive distress; pain in the chest, or trouble breathing; lack of sleep, frustration, confusion; migraine; weakness or weariness; and weight loss.

Both the central and regional neurological systems are unsafe. Mercury steam consumption may be harmful and have negative impacts on the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, neurological, digestive, and immune systems.

After treatment to various substances containing mercury by breathing in, eating, or skin absorption, neurological and behavioral problems may be noticed.

Sleeplessness, Memory loss, Neuromuscular side effects, Migraines. There have been reports of kidney complications, ranging from kidney failure to increased protein in the urine.

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