Deductive and Inductive Reasoning UGC NET Paper 1

Logical Reasoning Evaluating and Distinguishing Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning :- Specific observation to general observation.Deductive Reasoning

         Deductive reasoning :- General observation to Specific observation.Inductive Reasoning



Abductive reasoning :- on the basis of personal observation you may find the conclusion.

Analogies reasoning :- It is considered fundamental of human thought. compare one argument with others.

Indian Logic :- Means of knowledge. school of nyaya

Pramanas :- Indian logic is the new topic for the students but majority originated in ancient India. Indian logic originated in the Sanskrit language. Pramanas means proof and it’s also Means of knowledge in Indian logic.

The word prama is also used in the sense of consciousness, perception, etc. The occurrence of anything in our mind cannot come without knowledge. All thoughts in our mind are related to some knowledge that we have acquired.

The Indian philosophical studies are called Darshan Shastras, Shastras is a systematic study of any branch of knowledge. The word Darshana is derived from the root “drush” which means “to see” Drashyam means visuals; the movie Drashyam is quite an effective example of learning and knowledge through visuals, visual memory is the strongest memory.

The teachers of Advaita Vedanta philosophy there are “six” pramanas. Which pramanas has to be resorted to and also when is decided by the situation and the nature of object concerned.

These six means of knowledge are as follows :-

Pratyaksha (Perception) :- The external perception implies cognition of sense objects, namely sound, touch, form, taste, and smell by our five senses organs respectively ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. When the sense organs contact their respective objective then pratyaksha knowledge takes place.
The internal perception means the direct and immediate cognition of pain, pleasure, love, hate, anger, knowledge, or ignorance of various objects in our minds.
note:- use of sensory organ or on the basis of anubhava and memory

Anumana (Inference) :– Translated word Anumana means “knowing after”. It means the method by which knowledge is derived from another knowledge. It is indirect, mediate knowledge. We know an invariable relationship between two things and on that basis while seeing one we deduce the presence of the other.

Perceptual evidence – we can see smoke on the hill
Invariable concomitance – wherever there is smoke there is fire, as seen in the kitchen
Conclusion – therefore the hill has fire
note:- on the basis of prior knowledge you can find conclusion

Upamana (Comparison) :- Mimans and Advaitas define Upmana as the process by which the knowledge of A’s similarity to B is gained from the perception of B’s similarity to A, which has been seen elsewhere. For example a comparison between pet dog and animal which looks the same as a dog but lives in forest (wild dog)

Shabda (Verbal testimony) :- Sabda Praman is verbal testimony. It is also called statement of a trust-worthy person and authentic word. We learn mostly using words, an oral or written message is a universal mode of communication. We constantly get various information, direction, and knowledge through words. Right from childhood to this moment we use words as a valid and effective means of bringing about awareness of things, ideas, or emotions. Books, magazines, newspapers, letters, conversations, chats, radios, TV, movies, songs, etc. all the things depend on words. Also, the blog you are reading is a written message i.e. Shabda Pramana.

Arthapatti (Implication) :- This means postulation, supposition, or presumption of a fact. It is a distinct valid method of mediate knowledge. It is, in fact, a method of assumption of an unknown fact to account for a known fact that is otherwise inexplicable.

The classic example of this method of knowledge is a fat person ….. a fat person says that he never eats in the day, then we can easily postulate that he eats in night, for this reason that without this assumption his fatness and also his getting fat cannot be explained.
note :- assumption

Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension) :- The Advaita and the Mimansa school of Kumaril Bhatt believe Anuplabdhi to be a separate independent Pramana. It means non-apprehension.

The non-existence of a thing is apprehended by its non-perception. By not seeing a jar in a place one knows that it is not there. We use this method of knowledge very often, and this is evident from a statement like
“There is no teacher in the classroom”
“There is no sound here”
“This flower has no fragrance”
the statement ” we can not see any tiger in the tiger sanctuary at that time , so Vinay conclude that there is no tiger in the tiger sanctuary”

above statement is anupalabdhi pramana, it is based on the apprehension of a non-existent thing based on non-perception which means that perception as well as non-perception can be the source of valid knowledge. here just because tiger is not present at that time makes Vinay to conclude that there is no tiger in the sanctuary.

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