People Development and Environment For UGC NET Paper 1
People Development and Environment, Millennium Development Goal(MDG) and Sustainable Development goals(SDG).
Millennium development goal :- The 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are targets that UN Member States have agreed to work towards achieving during a 15-year period (2000–2015)
- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- To achieve global primary education
- To empower women and promote gender equality
- Reduce child mortality rates
- Improve maternal health
- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- Ensure environmental sustainability
- Develop a global partnership for development
Sustainable development goals:- There are 17 goal, that will help and improve human, and social life of human and environment. these goals are as below
- End poverty in all its forms everywhere
- End hunger, Achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable Agriculture.
- Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all
- Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
- Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
- Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
- Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
- Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
- Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
- Reduce inequality within and among countries.
- Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
- Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
- Conservation and sustainably use of the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
- Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
- Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
- Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development.
Human and environment interaction:– Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment
species are part of the ecosystem and have the most ecological impact. We have divided all aspects of existence on earth. From the earliest to our contemporary, this has impacted Our evolution, We always aim to improve the level of living for civilization, However, because we are an essential part of the environment in which we have a significant negative impact on the environment.
Some Activities have harmed the environment for countless years. Since human changes have been made to the planet and the areas around us as the growth of infrastructure, transport, growing urbanization, and other industries.
Reason for changes :- The following facts that have a negative impact on the environment are
1. The increasing Population :– Since the beginning of civilization, we have created an impact on the environment, and experts have been concerned about this, particularly as the global demand for food has been exceeded.
2. Deforestation :- Massive amounts of forest have been removed in order to construct apartments for the growing population, which has negative impact on the environment. deforestation reduced oxygen levels and increase green house gas, risk of soil erosion, and the elimination of wildlife habitats.
3. Water Pollution :– Water pollution describe the presence of too many poisons in water. water that is polluted from large-scale industry, the lack of proper sanitation facilities, other factors. The pollution in the rivers is increased by the direct release of sewage and industrial waste.
4. Air Pollution :– Air pollution is defined as an excessive number of pollutants in the air. Due to the usage of vehicles. We are forced to breathe air that is poisonous and polluted due to harmful gas emissions, which may lead to a variety of illnesses, include lung and heart diseases.
5. Pesticides And Fertilizers :– Food production increases together with a significant increase in population. But in order to support this production, crops with extremely low nutritional contents are grown using hazardous fertilizers, in order to meet the demand for adequate nutrition.
Anthropogenic Activities:- Anthropogenic Activities are any human activities that include behavior and acts that have an environmental impact, either in a direct or indirect manner. there have been numerous adverse environmental impacts.
The natural resources that society uses include fossil fuels, minerals, timber, agriculture, recreation, and others. Parts of these natural resources are converted into carbon dioxide inside the atmosphere, which produces pollution known as anthropogenic activities.
Some Prominent human activities and how they affect the environment
2 Burning of Fossil Fuels
3 Air Pollution
4 Water Pollution
7 Agricultural Practices
8 Waste Generation
9 Land Degradation
10 Soil Generation
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