Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Kyoto Protocol, and Paris Agreement
Montreal Protocol :- Montreal Protocol, 1987
The majority of individuals believe that Montreal Protocol given significant environmental protection
Both industrialized and developing countries are subject to enforceable systematic elimination promises under the Montreal Protocol for all major substances that deplete the ozone layer, including CFCs, and less harmful chemicals like HCFCs.
The Protocol created the Multilateral Fund of the UN in 1990 to give developing countries monetary assistance to meet their elimination duties. It was the initial financial instrument created under an international agreement.
They have five different Amendments are follow :-
- London 1990
- Copenhagen 1992
- Vienna 1995
- Montreal 1997, and
- Beijing 1999
All nations are reducing and eliminating their production and consumption of man-made chemicals that reduce the ozone layer in the stratosphere.
- Analyzing their cooperation needs through technical cooperation and analyses specific to individual countries.
- Encouraging technological collaboration to address these needs that have been identified.
- Delivering appropriate materials and information, as well as organizing sessions of instruction, seminars, and other related activities.
- Supporting countries that are developing by expanding bilateral, regional, and multilateral partnership possibilities.
Rio Summit:- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Themes :- Green economy in the context of poverty eradication and sustainable development
Issue resolve through Rio Summit
- Systematic examination of production patterns.
- Alternative energy sources for fossil fuels, which are connected to climate change on an international level
- A greater reliance on transit systems to reduce vehicle emissions, urban traffic, and the medical problems caused by pollution and poor air quality
- Increasing shortages of water.
Response of Rio Summit:-
The decision to create a top-level political forum on the topic of sustainable development and to establish an agenda of international sustainable development goals (SDG)
The United Nations Convention to Combat Deforestation will be used to implement the conference’s call for countries to work towards a land degradation.
Instructions involve improving risk evaluations, creating tools to reduce the likelihood of disasters, and integrating the design and building of environmentally friendly towns through support to local authorities.
Deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and climate change are closely connected and present significant risks to mankind.
Kyoto Protocol :-
As of now The Kyoto Protocol has 192 Members and Countries are bound by the agreement to use national measures mainly to fulfil their targets.
- Emissions trading – Carbon trading
- Clean development mechanism
- Joint implementation
1 Emissions trading – Carbon trading :- Countries that accepted the Kyoto Protocol have set goals for reducing their emissions.
According to the Kyoto Protocol, countries with surplus emissions units—that is, emission that are allowed but not “used”—can sell their extra capacity to nations that have surpassed their emission targets. As a result, reduction became a new product. Called carbon trading.
2 Clean development mechanism :-
These initiatives have a chance to generate marketable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, which are worth one tone of CO2 each and can be used towards reaching the Kyoto targets.
Installing more energy-efficient boilers or utilizing solar power for rural electrification.
3 Joint implementation :- Earning emission reduction units (ERUs), which are equivalent to one tone of CO2, from an emission-reduction or emission-removal project in another nation is permitted under the Kyoto Protocol and can be applied towards achieving a country’s Kyoto target.
A legally enforceable international climate agreement was adopted by 195 countries at the 2015 December Paris Climate Conference.
In reducing global warming below 2°C, the agreement sets up an international strategy that will put the world on track to prevent harmful climate change.
The main objectives of the Paris Agreement is Establishing the global temperatures that is well below 2°C over the level of pre-industrial times and doing efforts to reduce the temperature improve further to 1.5°C
Furthermore, the agreement aims to improve nations’ capacity to deal with the effects of global warming.
In order to achieve these ambitious objectives, country requires appropriate money circulation, Internet framework, and a better structure for building capacity will be implemented.
The United Nations Panel on Global Climate Change’s warning that going over the 1.5°C threshold , climate change effects, such as an increase of heat waves, flooding, and acid rains.
The Paris commitment a historic step forward in the international climate change process. For the first time, all countries have join together under a globally binding duty to address climate change