Data Interpretation Important For UGC NET
Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.
The quantitative or qualitative values of a variable can be referred to as data. Data is the plural form of datum, which is Latin for “to give” or “to give something.” Data may take the form of text, pictures, statistics, graphs, or other figures.
Data sources are broadly classified into primary and secondary data.
- As the name implies, primary data are those that are first gathered by the researcher, whereas secondary data are those that have already been gathered or created by others.
- primary data is factual and original. secondary data which is merely the analysis
and interpretation of primary data
- Surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaires, in-person interviews, and other primary data sources and secondary data gathering sources include internal documents, books, journals, websites, and government publications.
Data acquisition :
One of the most crucial and significant components of all research investigations is data. Although the methodologies used in different disciplines of study may vary, all research is built on data that is analysed and evaluated to produce information.
In statistical research, the fundamental unit is the data. Data are used to create statistical information such as Census , statistics on health, and records of crashes in traffic, stock market.
strategies for collecting primary data is Surveys , observations , experiments , questionnaires
and secondary data, internal documents , books, journals, websites, and government publications.
Primary data tool:-
Survey :- Surveys are the most often used method in the fields of social science, business, advertising, and, to some extent, medicine, where people asked question regarding their primary objectives.
Observations – Observations may be conducted with or without informing the subject of the observation that he is being watched. Both the intentionally generated environment and natural surroundings can be used for observations.
Experiments :- An experiment is merely an idea that is tested, till that we have not find the proper result or ultimate conclusion .
Questionnaire – A questionnaire is a collection of either open-ended or closed-ended questions that the respondent responds to. A questionnaire can be administered in a variety of ways, including over the phone, by mail, in person in a public place or at a facility, via email or fax, and more.
Secondary data tool:-
Published Electronic Sources
and government publications.
Classification of Data
Classification of data is the process of grouping data into distinct categories in order to provide the information in a clear shape and a logical way, To use data in the most effective and efficient way possible, it must first be classified.
There are two forms of classification: qualitative classification (classification based on qualities) and quantitative classification (classification based on variables or amount).
Quantitative and Qualitative Data.
Quantitative Data :-
Information that can be measured as numerical value, such as length in centi meters or revenue in rupees. Quantitative data contains the answers to questions like – How many or How much
Quantitative data primarily comes in two forms :-
Discrete and Continuous
Quantitative information that is a specific range of numeric values. The number of children is set ; A person’s have four children, would be an example of discrete data. they cannot, have 4.5 children.
The amount of visitors to my website is another example of discrete numeric data; I will receive 1500 visits in a day, but not 1500.6 , The most common charts used to display discrete data are pie charts, and bar charts.
Continuous data is not limited to specific values and can have any value. for example, The temperature of the room will change during the day.
Method of Quantitative data collection :-
Questionnaires and surveys
Analysis of Quantitative data :-
Regression analysis :– It is used to determine a group of variables are correlated with one another and find the relationship between them. It is particularly helpful for predicting the future and identifying trends.
Monte Carlo simulation :-It is utilise it to undertake sophisticated risk analysis, which enables them to precisely forecast potential future events.
Cohort analysis :- A cohort is a group of people who have similar characteristics or engage in similar behaviours during a specific period of time. This is particularly helpful for seeing trends in buyer behaviour, for Example :- customer who has purchases product through your app in March 2023
Cluster analysis :– The aim of cluster analysis is to segment various data points into segment that are homogenous or heterogeneous.
Time series analysis:- Time series analysis is used to spot recurring patterns in data throughout time. For Example :-weekly sales or monthly views or subscription on youtube.
Latest tools of Quantitative data analysis:-
Microsoft Power BI
Qualitative Data :-
Data that is descriptive and conceptual in nature is referred to as qualitative data and is gathered by observation, interviews, or questionnaires. its definition of traits, and behavior. For Example The cricket ball is orange, blue, and black in color (qualitative data)
Method of Qualitative data collection :-
1. One-to-One Interviews
2. Record keeping
4. Case studies
5. Group Discussion
Analysis of Quantitative data :-
Content Analysis :- This method of qualitative data analysis is By classifying material into words, concepts, and themes, content analysis can be used to find patterns in text. The relationship between all of the collected material can be quantified with the help of content analysis.
Narrative Analysis :- It is especially helpful for developing a thorough understanding of customers’ viewpoints on a certain subject. For Example, People narrative on Narender modi, People narrative on BJP or Congress, People narrative on Bangalore or Delhi or Mumbai etc.
Discourse Analysis :- the emphasis is on how individuals express themselves in various social circumstances like political, and cultural.
Latest tools of Quantitative data analysis:-
MAXQDA – QDA Software
NVivo – automation software
Monkey Learn – AI-powered, qualitative analysis and visualization tool.
Graphical representation :-
Bar-chart:- A bar chart or bar graph displays categorical data. Using rectangular bars with heights or lengths proportional to the values.
Histograms:- The histogram was invented by Karl Pearson , it is a graph called a histogram is used to show the frequency distribution of a small number of data points for a single variable. Histograms frequently divide data into different groups and count how many points are in each groups.
Pie-chart:- A pie chart is a visual representation of the various values of a certain variable or a way to summarise a set of nominal data.
Table-chart:- Data can be arranged in rows and columns using a table chart.
Line-chart:- A line chart that presents data visually as a series of connected points in a straight line. One of the simplest ways to comprehend any trading or financial data is through a line chart.
Mapping of Data:-
Data mapping is the act of matching fields from one database to another. By bridging the gaps between two data models, data mapping ensures that when data is transferred from one source to another, it will be correct and usable there.
The steps of data mapping
Step 1 :- The first step is to define the information that needs to be migrated, including the tables and the fields that are contained Data.
Step 2 :- Matching source fields with destination fields.
Step 3 :- The transformation formula is used if a field has to be transformed.
Step 4 :- using a test system and some sample data from the source to observe how it performs and make any necessary improvements if required.
Step 5 :- Update The data and adjustments when new data sources are added, as data sources change, or as requirements at the destination change.
Solved Question for DI :-
1 Table represents marks of five subjects and marks obtained by five students in five subjects are :-
1. What percentage of Dhoni’s marks in mathematics and physics combined are earned by Saurabh in chemistry and biology
Marks obtained by Saurabh in Chemistry and Biology together = 65 + 38 = 103
Marks obtained by Dhoni in Physics and Mathematics together = 58 + 86 = 144
Marks % = (Marks obtained by Saurabh / Marks obtained by Dhoni )*100
Marks % = (103/144)*100
Marks % = 71.52 %
2. Calculate the ratio of the marks obtained by all the students in Biology and marks obtained by all the students in English.
Marks obtained by all the students in Biology = 38 + 55 + 68 + 86 + 72 = 319
Marks obtained by all the students in English = 45 + 78 + 68 + 45 + 75 = 311
Required ratio = Marks obtained by all the students in Biology : Marks obtained by all the students in English
Required ratio = 319 : 311
3. Calculate the overall percentage of Ram in all the subjects.
Total marks in all the subjects = 100+ 100 + 100 + 100 + 100 = 500
Marks obtained by Ram in all the subjects = 58 + 72 + 50 + 68 + 68 = 316
Marks % = (Marks obtained by Ram / Total marks in all the subjects )*100
Marks % = (316/500)*100
Marks % = 63.2%
4. Calculate the difference between Rishi’s percentage of marks in English and Sunil’s percentage of marks in Physics.
Percentage of marks obtained by Rishi’s in English = (75 /100)*100
Percentage of marks obtained by Rishi’s in English = 75%
Percentage of marks obtained by Sunil’s in Physics = (66 /100)*100
Percentage of marks obtained by Sunil’s in Physics = 66%
Difference in % = 75 – 66 = 9 %
Important Date Interpretation Question for UGC NET Exam preparation and Put the answer on comment.
1. Data shows the initial investment of three business over the years
1. In 2019, the profit after a year would be Rs. 30,000 if A invested Rs. 1000 more after 4 months, Rs. 2000 more after 6 months, and C did not take part. Calculate the difference between the profit shares for A and B.
2. A and B joined together in the company in 2021, however they withdrew their initial investment. What was the year’s total profit if C’s share Rs. 1500.
3. What proportion of A’s average investment is made up by C’s average investment throughout the course of the given years
4. In 2023, A invested an additional Rs. 5000 after 3 months, B , 3000 after 6 months, and C , 3000 after six months. What was B’s portion of the profit if it was Rs. 25000 at the end of the year.
2. Data shows the Employee of 5 Company :-
1. What is the combined average Employee of all the Company.
2. What is the difference of men in jio and Airtel.
3. What is the difference between the number of men in Sriram Transport, Tata, and Amazon combined with the number of women in those three Company.
4. What percentage of women in Airtel and Amazon combined is equal to the number of women in jio.
3. In 5 different city, the number of registered voters and the percentage of voted are shown in the table below.
1. What was average vote in voting city Kolkata , Delhi and Bangalore .
2. In case 20% of the votes cast at Hyderabad were invalid, what proportion of the total number of registered voters cast invalid votes there
3. What is difference between persons didn’t cast a vote at Kolkata than they did at Delhi.
4. What is the difference between the number of voters who did not vote at Kolkata and Hyderabad together , and Delhi and Mumbai together.
4. Data shows the televisions sold by Company on different days.
1. What is difference between Television sold by Videocon on Saturday , and sold by LG and Sony combined on Thursday.
2. What is the average number of TV sold by Samsung and Videocon together.
3. Which company has sold highest number of TV on Monday , Wednesday , and Friday combined together.
4. What Percentage TV set sold by MI on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday together.
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